Types of Litigation: What You Need to Know

Discover the main types of litigations, including civil and criminal cases, and understand the litigation process with our comprehensive guide.

Types of Litigations: Everything You Need to Know

When talking about the types of litigations, we refer to varying legal processes aimed at resolving different disputes. Here’s a quick rundown:

  • Business Litigation: Disputes within the business realm like trademark infringement and breach of contract.
  • Personal Injury Litigation: Cases involving injuries from accidents or assaults seeking financial compensation.
  • Civil Litigation: A broad spectrum covering financial disputes, personal injuries, and more.
  • Patent Litigation: Cases concerning the unauthorized use of intellectual property.
  • Divorce Litigation: Settling divorce agreements, alimony, and child custody issues.
  • Antitrust Litigation: Ensuring fair competition in the business market.
  • Mass Torts Claims: Multiple plaintiffs suing a single defendant.
  • Securities Class Actions: Securities fraud claims involving multiple plaintiffs against one defendant.

Litigation is the process of resolving disputes through the court system. From personal injury to business disputes, the court process involves an established set of rules to ensure that issues are settled fairly.

My name is David Brillant, a seasoned lawyer with experience in various types of litigations, from business disputes to complex estate matters. With a deep understanding of litigation processes, I’m here to help you navigate your legal challenges smoothly.

Types of Major Litigations and Their Characteristics - types of litigations infographic pillar-4-steps

What is Litigation?

Litigation is the process of resolving disputes through the court system. From personal injury to business disputes, the court process involves an established set of rules to ensure that issues are settled fairly.

My name is David Brillant, a seasoned lawyer with experience in various types of litigations, from business disputes to complex estate matters. With a deep understanding of litigation processes, I’m here to help you navigate your legal challenges smoothly.

The Litigation Process

The litigation process can seem daunting, but breaking it down into manageable steps can help you understand what to expect. Here’s a simple breakdown:

  • Legal Action: The process begins when one party, known as the plaintiff, files a formal complaint with the court against another party, the defendant. This complaint outlines the plaintiff’s allegations and the relief they seek.

  • Lawsuit Preparation: Before the case reaches the courtroom, both sides gather evidence, conduct interviews, and develop their legal strategies. This stage is crucial for building a strong case.

  • Pleadings: These are the formal documents filed with the court. The complaint, the defendant’s answer, and any counterclaims are all part of the pleadings. Each document sets the stage for the case by laying out the issues and defenses.

Legal Action

When someone decides to take legal action, they are essentially asking the court to intervene and resolve a dispute. This can be due to various reasons, such as a breach of contract, a personal injury, or a business disagreement.

Lawsuit Preparation

Preparing for a lawsuit involves several key steps:

  1. Gathering Evidence: This includes collecting documents, emails, and other relevant materials.
  2. Interviews and Depositions: Both sides will interview witnesses and take depositions to gather more information.
  3. Developing Legal Strategies: Lawyers will analyze the evidence and develop strategies to present their case effectively.


Pleadings are the backbone of any litigation process. They include:

  • Complaint: Filed by the plaintiff, it outlines the allegations and the relief sought.
  • Answer: The defendant’s formal response to the complaint.
  • Counterclaim: If the defendant has claims against the plaintiff, they can file a counterclaim.

lawsuit preparation - types of litigations

Understanding these steps can help you feel more confident as you navigate the complex world of litigation. Each stage is designed to ensure that both parties have a fair chance to present their case and seek justice.

Next, we’ll delve into the various types of litigation, from civil to criminal and everything in between.

Types of Litigation

Civil litigation involves legal disputes between individuals or entities where no criminal charges are involved. This type of litigation often seeks monetary damages or specific performance rather than criminal sanctions.

Common civil litigation cases include:

  • Personal Injury: Lawsuits filed to seek compensation for injuries sustained in accidents. For example, if you slip and fall in a store due to a wet floor, you might file a personal injury lawsuit.
  • Landlord-Tenant Disputes: Disagreements over lease terms, rent payments, or property conditions.
  • Intellectual Property Disputes: Cases involving copyright, trademark, or patent infringements.
  • Antitrust Issues: Lawsuits aimed at preventing unfair business practices that harm competition.
  • Medical Malpractice: Claims against healthcare providers for negligence that results in patient harm.

Criminal litigation involves the government prosecuting an individual or entity for violating criminal laws. Unlike civil cases, criminal cases can result in penalties such as imprisonment or fines.

Key aspects of criminal litigation include:

  • Government Prosecution: The state or federal government brings the case against the accused.
  • Criminal Charges: Specific allegations of criminal conduct, such as theft, assault, or fraud.
  • Standard of Proof: The prosecution must prove the defendant’s guilt “beyond a reasonable doubt,” a higher standard than in civil cases.

Commercial litigation deals with disputes arising in the business context. These cases often involve complex issues and can be highly specialized.

Examples of commercial litigation include:

  • Business Disputes: Conflicts between business partners, shareholders, or competitors.
  • Contract Breaches: Cases where one party fails to fulfill their contractual obligations.
  • Fraud: Intentional deception for financial gain.
  • Defamation: False statements that harm a business’s reputation.
  • Copyright Infrigation: Unauthorized use of a company’s intellectual property.

Personal injury litigation seeks to provide financial compensation for harm caused by another’s negligence or intentional actions.

Typical scenarios include:

  • Accidents: Car crashes, workplace injuries, or slip-and-fall incidents.
  • Emotional Harm: Cases where the plaintiff suffers psychological damage.
  • Tort Lawsuits: Legal actions based on wrongful acts that cause harm.
  • Compensation: Plaintiffs seek damages for medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering.

Family law litigation addresses legal issues related to family relationships.

Common cases involve:

  • Divorce: Legal dissolution of a marriage.
  • Custody Arrangements: Determining where children will live and how decisions about their upbringing will be made.
  • Child Support: Financial support for a child’s upbringing.
  • Adoptions: Legal processes for adopting a child.
  • Guardianship: Legal responsibility for another person, usually a minor or incapacitated adult.

Class action litigation allows multiple plaintiffs with similar claims to sue a defendant as a group. This type of litigation is often used in cases involving product malfunctions or usurious contracts.

Key points include:

  • Joint Lawsuits: Multiple plaintiffs combine their claims into one lawsuit.
  • Multiple Plaintiffs: Large groups of people affected by the same issue.
  • Product Malfunctions: Defective products causing harm to consumers.
  • Usurious Contracts: Unfair or excessively high-interest rates in financial agreements.

Understanding these types of litigations can help you determine the best legal path for your situation. Whether you’re dealing with a business dispute, a personal injury, or a family matter, knowing your options is crucial.

The Litigation Process

Navigating the litigation process can be daunting, but understanding each step can make it more manageable. Let’s break it down into simpler terms: pleadings, discovery, pre-trial motions, trial, and settlement.


Pleadings are the initial documents filed in a lawsuit. They set the stage for the entire process.

  • Complaint: This is the document the plaintiff (the person suing) files to start the lawsuit. It outlines the facts of the case and what the plaintiff wants from the court.
  • Answer: The defendant (the person being sued) responds to the complaint with an answer, admitting or denying the allegations.
  • Counterclaim: Sometimes, the defendant might file a counterclaim against the plaintiff, essentially saying, “You’re suing me, but I have a claim against you too.”


The discovery phase is like a treasure hunt for evidence. Both sides gather information to build their cases.

  • Evidence Collection: This includes gathering documents, emails, and other relevant materials.
  • Interrogatories: These are written questions one party sends to the other, which must be answered under oath.
  • Depositions: These are in-person interviews where witnesses or parties answer questions under oath, with a court reporter documenting everything.

Pre-Trial Motions

Before the trial, both parties can file pre-trial motions to shape how the trial will proceed.

  • Summary Judgment: One party asks the judge to decide the case based on the evidence gathered during discovery, arguing that there’s no need for a trial.
  • Dismissal Motions: These motions request the court to dismiss the case entirely, often because of legal deficiencies in the complaint.


If the case doesn’t settle, it proceeds to trial.

  • Judge or Jury: Trials can be decided by a judge (bench trial) or a jury.
  • Verdict: Both sides present their evidence and arguments. The judge or jury then makes a decision, known as the verdict.


Most cases end in a settlement rather than a trial. Settlement means both parties agree to resolve the dispute without going to court.

  • Agreement: Both sides agree on a resolution, often involving payment from one party to the other.
  • Cost Reduction: Settling can significantly reduce legal costs compared to a full trial.
  • Timeline Reduction: Settlements also tend to resolve cases faster than going through a lengthy trial process.

Understanding these steps can help you navigate the litigation process more confidently. Next, we’ll dive into some frequently asked questions about the different types of litigation, providing more clarity on what each type entails.

Frequently Asked Questions about Types of Litigation

What are the main types of litigation?

Litigation can be divided into two main categories: civil litigation and criminal litigation.

Civil litigation involves disputes between individuals or entities where one party seeks monetary compensation from another. Examples include personal injury cases, landlord-tenant disputes, and intellectual property conflicts.

Criminal litigation, on the other hand, involves the government prosecuting an individual or entity for violating laws. The focus here is on punishment, such as imprisonment or fines, rather than financial compensation to a victim.

What is an example of litigation?

A common example of litigation is personal injury litigation. Imagine you’re in a car accident caused by another driver’s negligence. You might file a lawsuit seeking financial compensation for medical bills, lost wages, and emotional distress. This falls under civil litigation because it involves one party seeking monetary damages from another.

Another example is commercial litigation. Suppose two businesses disagree over a contract. One business might sue the other for breach of contract, seeking compensation for financial losses. This type of litigation often involves complex legal principles and specialized knowledge of business law.

What is the difference between litigate and settle?

Litigate means to take a dispute to court, where a judge (and sometimes a jury) will decide the outcome. This process can be lengthy and expensive, but it allows for a formal resolution.

Settle, on the other hand, means to resolve the dispute outside of court. Both parties agree on a resolution, often involving some form of compensation. Settling can save time and money compared to a full trial.

Key Differences:

  • Compensation vs. Punishment: Civil litigation focuses on compensation, while criminal litigation aims for punishment.
  • Standard of Proof: In civil cases, the plaintiff must prove their case by a “preponderance of the evidence,” meaning it’s more likely than not that their claim is true. In criminal cases, the prosecution must prove the defendant’s guilt “beyond a reasonable doubt,” a much higher standard.

Understanding these differences can help you decide the best course of action for your specific situation.


At Brillant Law Firm, we understand that navigating the complexities of litigation can be overwhelming. Whether you’re dealing with a commercial dispute, personal injury claim, or any other type of litigation, our team is here to guide you every step of the way.

Our Legal Expertise

We pride ourselves on our extensive legal knowledge and experience. Our attorneys are well-versed in various types of litigation, from civil and criminal cases to specialized areas like intellectual property and antitrust issues. This breadth of expertise allows us to provide comprehensive legal solutions tailored to your specific needs.

Client Commitment

Our commitment to our clients goes beyond just offering legal advice. We strive to build lasting relationships based on trust and transparency. We take the time to understand your unique situation and work diligently to achieve the best possible outcome for you.

Bespoke Strategies

Every case is different, and a one-size-fits-all approach simply doesn’t work. At Brillant Law Firm, we develop bespoke strategies that are customized to your individual circumstances. Whether it’s gathering crucial evidence, negotiating settlements, or representing you in court, our tailored approach ensures that your interests are always protected.

When facing legal challenges, having the right legal partner can make all the difference. Trust Brillant Law Firm to provide the expertise, commitment, and personalized strategies you need to navigate your litigation journey successfully.

Learn more about our services and how we can assist you. At Brillant Law Firm, your success is our success. We’re dedicated to achieving the best possible outcomes for our clients.

For more information Call:


Reach Out Now

"*" indicates required fields

This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

Recent Blog Posts: